SALC

Here are some suggestions on how to use the SALC to practice and learn languages.

SALC - Here are some suggestions on how to use the SALC to practice and learn languages.

2.2 Who’s your favorite singer? (Order of Adjectives in English)

Adjective Order

There are 2 basic positions for adjectives:

  1. Adjective Before Noun
  2. Adjective After Verb
adj.
before
noun
adj.
after
verb
1 I have a big dog.
2 Snow is white.

Adjective Before Noun

We often use more than one adjective before the noun:

  • I like big black dogs.
  • She was wearing a beautiful long red dress.

What is the correct order for two or more adjectives?

1. First of all, the general order is:

opinionfact

“Opinion” is what you think about something. “Fact” is what is definitely true about something.

  • a lovely new dress (not a new lovely dress)
  • a boring French film (not a French boring film)

2. The “normal” order for fact adjectives is

size, shape, age, colour / origin / material / purpose

  • small 18th-century French coffee table
  • rectangular black wooden box

3. Determiners usually come first, even though some grammarians regard them as fact adjectives:

  • articles (a, the)
  • possessives (my, your…)
  • demonstratives (this, that…)
  • quantifiers (some, any, few, many…)
  • numbers (one, two, three)

Note that when we want to use two colour adjectives, we join them with “and”:

  • Many newspapers are black and white.
  • She was wearing a long, blue and yellow dress.

Here are some examples of adjective order:

adjectives head noun
determiner opinion adjectives fact adjectives
other size, shape, age, colour origin material purpose*
two ugly black guard dogs
a well-known Chinese artist
a small, 18th-century French coffee table
your fabulous new sports car
a lovely pink and green Thai silk dress
some black Spanish leather riding boots
a big black and white dog
this cheap plastic rain coat
an old wooden fishing boat
my new tennis racket
a wonderful 15th-century Arabic poem

*often a noun used as an adjective

Not all grammarians agree about the exact order of adjectives, and the detailed rules are complicated. The rules on this page are for the normal, “natural” order of adjectives. These rules are not rigid, and you may sometimes wish to change the order for emphasis. Consider the following conversations:

Conversation 1
A “I want to buy a round table.”
B “Do you want a new round table or an old round table?”

Conversation 2
A “I want to buy an old table”.
B “Do you want a round old table or a square old table?”

Adjective After Verb

An adjective can come after some verbs, such as: be, become, feel, get, look, seem, smell, sound

Even when an adjective comes after the verb and not before a noun, it always refers to and qualifies the subject of the clause, not the verb.

Look at the examples below: subject verb adjective

  • Ram is English.
  • Because she had to wait, she became impatient.
  • Is it getting dark?
  • The examination did not seem difficult.
  • Your friend looks nice.
  • This towel feels damp.
  • That new film doesn’t sound very interesting.
  • Dinner smells good tonight.
  • This milk tastes sour.
  • It smells bad.

These verbs are “stative” verbs, which express a state or change of state, not “dynamic” verbs which express an action. Note that some verbs can be stative in one sense (she looks beautiful | it got hot), and dynamic in another (she looked at him | he got the money). The above examples do not include all stative verbs.

Note also that in the above structure (subject verb adjective), the adjective can qualify a pronoun since the subject may be a pronoun.

EXERCISE 1

EXERCISE 2

2.1 Who’s Natalie Portman(Questions with question words – English exercises)

Question Words in English

Question Words in English

The most common question words in English are the following:

 

WHO

WHO is only used when referring to people. (= I want to know the person)

  • Who is the best football player in the world?
  • Who are your best friends?
  • Who is that strange guy over there?

WHERE

WHERE is used when referring to a place or location. (= I want to know the place)

  • Where is the library?
  • Where do you live?
  • Where are my shoes?

WHEN

WHEN is used to refer to a time or an occasion. (= I want to know the time)

  • When do the shops open?
  • When is his birthday?
  • When are we going to finish?

WHY

WHY is used to obtain an explanation or a reason. (= I want to know the reason)

  • Why do we need a nanny?
  • Why are they always late?
  • Why does he complain all the time?

Normally the response begins with “Because…”

WHAT

WHAT is used to refer to specific information. (= I want to know the thing)

  • What is your name?
  • What is her favourite colour?
  • What is the time?

WHICH

WHICH is used when a choice needs to be made. (= I want to know the thing between alternatives)

  • Which dish did you order – the pizza or the pasta?
  • Which day do you prefer for a meeting – today or tomorrow?
  • Which is better – this one or that one?

HOW

HOW is used to describe the manner that something is done. (= I want to know the way)

  • How do you cook lasagna?
  • How does he know the answer?
  • How can I learn English quickly?

With HOW there are a number of other expressions that are used in questions:

How much – refers to a quantity or a price (uncountable nouns)

  • How much time do you have to finish the test?
  • How much is the jacket on display in the window?
  • How much money will I need?

How many – refers to a quantity (countable nouns)

  • How many days are there in April?
  • How many people live in this city?
  • How many brothers and sister do you have?

Read more about How much vs. How many.

How often – refers to frequency

  • How often do you visit your grandmother?
  • How often does she study?
  • How often are you sick?

How far – refers to distance

  • How far is the university from your house?
  • How far is the bus stop from here?

EXERCISE 1

EXERCISE 2

EXERCISE 3

EXERCISE 4

Mixed Conditional

MIXED CONDITIONAL

It is possible for the two parts of a conditional sentence to refer to different times, and the resulting sentence is a “mixed conditional” sentence. There are two types of mixed conditional sentence.

PRESENT RESULT OF A PAST CONDITION

FORM

In this type of mixed conditional sentence, the tense in the ‘if’ clause is the past perfect, and the tense in the main clause is the present conditional.

If clause (condition) Main clause (result)
If + past perfect present conditional
If this thing had happened that thing would happen.

As in all conditional sentences, the order of the clauses is not fixed. You may have to rearrange the pronouns and adjust punctuation when you change the order of the clauses, but the meaning is identical.

EXAMPLES
  • If I had worked harder at school, I would have a better job now.
  • I would have a better job now if I had worked harder at school.
  • If we had looked at the map we wouldn’t be lost.
  • We wouldn’t be lost if we had looked at the map.
  • If you had caught that plane you would be dead now.
  • You would be dead now if you had caught that plane.
FUNCTION

This type of mixed conditional refers to an unreal past condition and its probable result in the present. These sentences express a situation which is contrary to reality both in the past and in the present. In these mixed conditional sentences, the time is the past in the “if” clause and in the presentin the main clause.

EXAMPLES
  • If I had studied I would have my driving license. (but I didn’t study and now I don’t have my license)
  • I would be a millionaire now if I had taken that job. (but I didn’t take the job and I’m not a millionaire)
  • If you had spent all your money, you wouldn’t buy this jacket. (but you didn’t spend all your money and now you can buy this jacket)

In these mixed conditional sentences, you can also use modals in the main clause instead of would to express the degree of certainty, permission, or a recommendation about the outcome.

EXAMPLES
  • If you had crashed the car, you might be in trouble.
  • I could be a millionaire now if I had invested in ABC Plumbing.
  • If I had learned to ski, I might be on the slopes right now.

PAST RESULT OF PRESENT OR CONTINUING CONDITION

FORM

In this second type of mixed conditional sentence, the tense in the ‘if’ clause is the simple past, and the tense in the main clause is the perfect conditional.

If clause (condition) Main clause (result)
If + simple past perfect conditional
If this thing happened that thing would have happened.

As in all conditional sentences, the order of the clauses is not fixed. You may have to rearrange the pronouns and adjust punctuation when you change the order of the clauses, but the meaning is identical.

EXAMPLES
  • If I wasn’t afraid of spiders, I would have picked it up.
  • I would have picked it up if I wasn’t afraid of spiders.
  • If we didn’t trust him we would have sacked him months ago.
  • We would have sacked him months ago if we didn’t trust him.
  • If I wasn’t in the middle of another meeting, I would have been happy to help you.
  • I would have been happy to help you if I wasn’t in the middle of another meeting.
FUNCTION

These mixed conditional sentences refer to an unreal present situation and its probable (but unreal) past result. In these mixed conditional sentences, the time in the if clause is now or always and the time in the main clause is before now. For example, “If I wasn’t afraid of spiders” is contrary to present reality. I am afraid of spiders. “I would have picked it up” is contrary to past reality. I didn’t pick it up.

EXAMPLES
  • If she wasn’t afraid of flying she wouldn’t have travelled by boat.
  • I’d have been able to translate the letter if my Italian was better.
  • If I was a good cook, I’d have invited them to lunch.
  • If the elephant wasn’t in love with the mouse, she’d have trodden on him by now.

Now Practice

Mixed Conditionals

1.3- How do you spell your last name? (Demonstrative pronouns (This,these, that, those)

Image result

Demonstrative Pronouns

We use this (singular) and these (plural) to refer to something that is here / near.

Examples:

  • This is my car. (singular)
  • These are our children. (plural)

We use that (singular) and those (plural) to refer to something that is there / far.

Examples:

  • That is our house. (singular)
  • Those are my shoes. (plural)

Note that the verb changes (i.e. singular / plural) depending on the pronoun that you use.

You can also use Demonstrative Pronouns by themselves:

  • Did you do that?
  • I’d like to buy these?
  • Which of those would you like?

PRACTICE 1

PRACTICE 2

 

1.2 are you an excellent actor? (verb to be affirmative, negative and Interrogative)

The verb be is used in the following patterns:

1. with a noun:

My mother is a teacher.
Bill Clinton was the president of the US.

2. with an adjective:

This soup is very tasty.
The children were good.

2.1 with the -ing form to make the continuous aspect

We were walking down the street.
Everything was wet. It had been raining for hours.

2.2 with the -ed form to make the passive voice

The house was built in 1890.
The street is called Montagu Street.
This car was made in Japan.

3. with a prepositional phrase:

John and his wife are from Manchester.
The flowers are on the table.

to-be-present-tense

Practice 1

Practice 2 

Practice 3

1.1 are you American? (countries and nationalities)

Nationalities, languages, countries and regions

When we refer to a nation or region, we can use:

– the name of the country or region: Turkey, Japan, Germany, Brazil, Asia

– a singular noun that we use for a person from the country or region: a Turk, a Japanese, a German, a Brazilian, an Asian

– the plural expression the … used for the whole population of a country or region: the Turks, the Japanese, the Germans, the Brazilians, the Asians

– an adjective: Turkish, Japanese, German, Brazilian, Asian

Country/Region

Adjective

Person (noun)

People (plural noun)

Algeria

Algerian

an Algerian

the Algerians

Australia

Australian

an Australian

the Australians

America/the USA

American

an American

the Americans

Belgium

Belgian

a Belgian

the Belgians

Brazil

Brazilian

a Brazilian

the Brazilians

Europe

European

a European

the Europeans

Italy

Italian

an Italian

the Italians

Hungary

Hungarian

a Hungarian

the Hungarians

Here are some exceptions:

Country/region

Adjective

Person (noun)

People (plural noun)

Britain

British

a British man/woman

the British

England

English

an Englishman/woman

the English

France

French

a Frenchman/woman

the French

Ireland

Irish

an Irishman/woman

the Irish

Spain

Spanish

a Spaniard

the Spanish

The Netherlands/

Dutch

a Dutchman/woman

the Dutch

Holland

Wales

Welsh

a Welshman/woman

the Welsh

Exercise 1

Exercise 2

Resource web page

COMPARATIVES and SUPERLATIVES

COMPARATIVES

Comparatives are used to compare two things.

For one-syllable adjectives: adjective –er + than

He is taller than his cousin.

For two or more syllable adjectives: more + adjective + than (to show the opposite use less instead of more before the adjective).

This ring is more expensive than that one.

For adjectives ending in ‘y’: drop the ‘y’ and adjective –ier + than

She is funnier than him.

There are exceptions – good (better), bad (worse), far(further/farther), etc.

If the second person or thing being compared isn’t mentioned in the sentence, we drop than.

Which is more important, money or power? I think money is more important.

We can also use comparatives to compare one person or thing with all the rest of the people or things in their group.

John is more diligent than all of his classmates.

 

SUPERLATIVES

Superlatives are used to compare a person or thing with every other person or thing in the same group.

For 1 syllable adjectives: the + adjective –est

He is the tallest member of his family.

For 2 or more syllable adjectives: the + most + adjective (to show the opposite use least instead of most before the adjective)

This ring is the most expensive ring in the store.

For adjectives ending in y: drop the y and use the + adjective –iest

She is the funniest person here.

There are exceptions – good (best)bad (worst)far (furthest/farthest), etc.

 

Practice 1

Practice 2