SALC

Here are some suggestions on how to use the SALC to practice and learn languages.

SALC - Here are some suggestions on how to use the SALC to practice and learn languages.

TOEIC practice.

toeic

Do Practice Tests Under Test Conditions

While you are preparing for the TOEIC it is important that you do constant practice under test conditions. That means taking practice tests with the same time limits and surroundings as if it were the real exam. So you need to take all parts of the test to get used to the quick transitions, fast pace and the tricks that can appear in the test.

These links will send you for extra TOEIC practice:

TOEIC 1
TOEIC 2
TOEIC 3
TOEIC 4
TOEIC 5
TOEIC 6
TOEIC 7

Note: They will run better using Mozilla Firefox browser

Deutsche Grammatik – Zeitformen

Deutsche Grammatik – Perfekt 

Präsens: Ich lerne Deutsch.

Deutsche Grammatik lernen Perfekt haben

1. Uso del Perfekt

El Perfekt es el tiempo verbal para referirse a acciones pasadas más usado en alemán. En utiliza para 3 circunstancias:

  1.  Para referirse a una acción pasada sin relación con el presente:      Er hat gestern Fußball gespielt
  2. Para referirse a una acción pasada que continua en el present: Wir sind nach Spanien gereist.
  3. Para referirse a una acción que se completará en el futuro: Ich habe es nächste Woche geschafft

2. Conjugación del Perfekt

La conjugación es bastante sencilla. Se construye con la estructura:

VERBO AUXILIAR sein o haben EN PRESENTE + PARTIZIP II

  • Ich habe ein Bild gemalt
    (He pintado/Pinté un cuadro)
  • Sie ist schon angekommen
    (Ella ya ha llegado)

3. Cuando usar el auxiliar haben y cuando sein

-Sólo se usa el sein como auxiliar:

  • Para verbos intransitivos y no reflexivos que indiquen movimiento o cambio de estado, como son: rennen, springen, laufen, fallen, gehen, sterben, schmelzen (derretirse), etc.

-El auxiliar haben se usa en los demás casos.

Hay algunos verbos pueden ser transitivos o intransitivos dependiendo de la oración. Por lo que en algunas ocasiones tendrán como auxiliar sein (función intransitiva) y en otras haben (función transitiva). Como ejemplos podemos encontrar:

fahren (conducir), biegen (girar), verderben (estropearse), brechen (romper), fliegen (volar), treten (pisar, ir), scheiden (separar, partir), reiten (cabalgar)

Übungen zum Perfekt: Ejercicio 1 Ejercicio 2 Ejercicio 3

Arbeiten und Berufe auf Deutsch

Arbeiten und Berufe auf Deutsch

PlakatBerufe

Nach dem Beruf fragen:

  • Was bist du von Beruf? – Ich bin Arzt.
  • Was machst du von Beruf?  – Ich bin Lehrer.
  • Als was arbeitest du? – Ich arbeite als Hausmeister.
  • Welchen Beruf hast du? – Ich bin Krankenschwester.
  • Was hast du gelernt? – Ich habe Medizin studiert und bin jetzt Arzt.
  • Welchen Beruf hast du gelernt? – Ich habe eine Ausbildung zum Bäcker gemacht.

Nach der Ausbildung fragen:

  • Was hast du gelernt? – Ich habe (den Beruf) Einzelhandelskaufmann gelernt.
  • Welchen Beruf hast du gelernt?  – Ich habe Mechaniker gelernt.
  • Was hast du studiert? – Ich studiere BWL (Betriebswirtschaftslehre).
  • Hast du eine Ausbildung gemacht? – Ja, ich habe eine Ausbildung zum Maurer gemacht.

Das Verb „arbeiten“

Das Verb arbeiten kann mit mehreren Präpositionen verwendet werden:

  • arbeiten als + Beruf: Ich arbeite als Architekt.
  • arbeiten bei + Firma: Ich arbeite bei Siemens.
  • arbeiten für + Firma/Chef: Ich arbeite für Volkswagen/Herrn Meier.
  • arbeiten an + Projekt/Aufgabe: Ich arbeite im Moment an meiner dem kaputten Auto von Frau Schulz.
  • arbeiten mit + Kollegen: Ich arbeite mit Herrn Hoffmann an dem Projekt.

Der Unterschied zwischen „lernen“ und „studieren“

  • Ich lerne für die Matheprüfung.
  • Ich lerne heute Abend Deutsch.
  • In meinem Deutschkurs habe ich gestern viele neue Wörter gelernt.

ABER

  • Ich studiere Medizin.
  • Ich will gern Architektur studieren.
  • Ich habe Deutsch an der Universität studiert. (–> Es war dein Hauptfach an der Universität)

Übungen zum Thema Berufe auf Deutsch (EJERCICIOS!!!)

Übung 1

Übung 2

Übung 3

Simple present and questions

Simple present

The simple present is formed with the base form of the main verb. However, an agreement ‘s’ (He works. / They work.) must be added to the main verb if the subject is third person singular (he, she, it, John, the car). When the main verb links the subject to an adjective, we use am, are, or is, depending on the subject.

I like music. / He likes music.

I am happy. / You are happy. / She is happy.

The car is blue. / The cars are blue.

When making negative sentences use doesn’t / don’t, or in the case of the be-verb use isn’t / aren’t.

When making questions use do / does, or in the case of the be-verb use is / are. (An exception being most ‘who’ questions).

She is tired. They are worried.

He doesn’t like apples. I don’t play the piano.

He is happy. The earth isn’t flat.

When does he wake up?

Does she exercise every day?

Is the restaurant near here?

Who lives next door to you?

We use the simple present to:

Talk about something that is true in the present.

I am an accountant.

Talk about things that are always true.

The earth orbits the sun.

Talk about repeated actions or habits.

He brushes his teeth every day.

Talk about events in the near future that have a fixed time.

The movie starts at nine.

Adverbs of frequency are often used with the present tense to explain how often a repeated action or habit happens.

She sometimes plays basketball.

Simple present questions

  • What do you do to get rid of stress?
  • What do you eat or drink when it is really hot outside?
  • What TV shows do you watch regularly?
  • Where do you usually eat lunch?
  • What do you do if you are bored?
  • Who do you hang out with most?
  • What app do you use the most?
  • When do you usually wake up?
  • Who do you talk to when you have problems?
  • Do you prefer meat or fresh vegetables?

Exercises Affirmative, Negative and Questions

English Tenses

tenses table with examples

English Tenses

Explanation Past Present Future
Simple Past Simple Present Future I Simple
a moment in time action that takes place once, never or several times He played football every Tuesday. He plays football every Tuesday. He will / is going to play football every Tuesday.
actions that happen one after another He played football and then he went home. He plays football and then he goes home. He will play football and then he will go home.
state He loved football. He loves football. He will love football.
Past Progressive Present Progressive Future I Progressive
a period of time action going on at that moment He was playing football. He is playing football. He will be playing football.
actions taking place at the same time He was playing football and she was watching. He is playing football and she is watching. He will be playing football and she will be watching.
Past Perfect Simple Present Perfect Simple Future II Simple
result action taking place before a certain moment in time; emphasises the result He had won five matches until that day. He has won five matches so far. He will have won five matches by then.
Past Perfect Progressive Present Perfect Progressive Future II Progressive
Course / Duration action taking place before a certain moment in time (and beyond), emphasises the duration He had been playing football for ten years. He has been playing football for ten years. He will have been playing football for ten years

Tenses

Legend

Tenses
moment in time
  • action that takes place once, never or several times
  • actions that happen one after another
  • actions that suddenly take place
Tenses
period of time
  • action that started before a certain moment and lasts beyond that moment
  • actions taking place at the same time
Tenses
Result
  • action taking place before a certain moment in time
  • puts emphasis on the result
Tenses
Course / Duration
  • action taking place before a certain moment in time
  • puts emphasis on the course or duration of the action

Games practices sentences

English Tenses practice

Near and near to

Near and near to as prepositions

The preposition near (to) means ‘not far away in distance’. Near and near to mean the same, but near is more common:

She comes from a small place on the coast near Barcelona.

My mother loves to sit near the fire at night.

She reached out her hand and drew him near to her.

We can use near (to) to talk about time:

My boss is near retirement. (He will retire soon.)

Call me back near the end of September.

We can use near (to) to talk about being almost in a particular state or condition:

It was full of soldiers and of military police, and I was near despair.

Near as an adjective

In formal contexts, we can use near as an adjective to refer to time with the phrase in the near future meaning ‘soon’. It is usually in end position:

Bank interest rates are expected to rise in the near future.

Warning:

We don’t use near as an adjective modifying a noun when it refers to distance:

We went to a nearby restaurant in the evening.

Not: … a near restaurant

Near / Close to

Near and Close to mean the same thing. It is similar to next to / beside but there is more of a distance between the two things.

  • The receptionist is near the front door.
  • This building is near a subway station.
  • We couldn’t park the car close to the store.
  • Our house is close to a supermarket.

http://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/gramatica/gramatica-britanica/near-and-near-to

Prepositions of location and direction