Here are some suggestions on how to use the SALC to practice and learn languages.

SALC - Here are some suggestions on how to use the SALC to practice and learn languages.

Past Modals of Deduction

We can use modal verbs to talk about how sure or unsure we are about something in the past just as we use modals in the present with a slight change in the form.

  • He must be really happy about his promotion. (present deduction)
  • He must have been very happy when he was told about his promotion. (past deduction)


When we use a modal verb to talk about a situation where we are not expressing a fact but we are using deduction the form is MODAL + have + past participle (verb 3)


Must have + past participle

We use ‘must have + past participle’ when we are quite sure about something.

  • You must have been very pleased when you received the results of your exams.
  • He must have forgotten his phone at home again. He’s not answering.
  • I must have left my keys in the car. I can’t find them.


Might have/may have/could have + past participle

We use ‘might have/may have/could have + past participle’ when we are not sure about something but we think it was possible.

  • He was supposed to be here an hour ago but he could have been stuck in a traffic jam.
  • He may have said he was coming but I can’t really remember. I wasn’t listening.
  • I might have been here when I was a child but I can’t really remember.


Can’t have + past participle

We use ‘can’t have + past participle’ for things that we are sure did not happen in the past.

  • I can’t have left my phone at work. You phoned me when I was walking to my car. That’s it. It must be in the car.
  • You can’t have seen him this morning. He was with me all the time.
  • She can’t have liked the show. She hates musicals.




Some exercises to practice:


Verb Patterns

What are verb patterns?

In English we have many rules when it comes to using two verbs together in the same phrase. Verb patterns are the way you are going to use the second verb when it is dependent on the first verb. For example:


“I like drinking green tea after dinner or I like to drink green tea after dinner”


In this example you’ll see that in one of them I am using the “ing form” and in the other I’m using the “to infinitive.” In this example both forms are correct and both forms mean the exact same thing.


What’s so difficult about that???

Sure, it seems quite easy so far, but the verb “like” is an example of a verb that can be used with either form and the meaning doesn’t change. If we had to change the first verb from “like” and use the verb “stop,” this same rule, or pattern,  would not be the same and the meaning would change. For example:


“I stopped drinking water when exercising or I stopped to drink water when exercising”


In this example, both phrases are correct but they have different meanings. In the first, we have stopped the activity of “drinking water,” and in the second, we have stopped what we werw doing (exercising) to drink water.

So, now you can see that depending on the first verb that we use, we have to know what form we will use with the verb that follows.


Now let’s take a look at all the possibilities:

Verb Patterns Explanation

Verb Patterns List


Keep practicing:

Exercise 1

Exercise 2

Exercise 3

Exercise 4

Exercise 5

Exercise 6



Is Speed Reading for You?

speed-readAre you an efficient reader? What kind of reader are you?

You will know in a few minutes after you have completed this free online speed reading test.

You will get your reading speed as soon as you have finished your timed reading. You may then perform a comprehension test with a series of questions about the text you have just read.


Speed Reading Test




If you want to know more before doing the test, follow this link:

Reading Comprehesion Practice Tests

Exams are coming!




But wait! You don’t have to worry, here we share very useful practice tests that will help you strengthen your reading comprehension skills and take your exams easy

The first practice test contains 45 questions divided in 9 passages. All you have to do is read the text and answer the questions according to what it is stated in the passage. At the bottom of the page you can check the correct answers.

The second one is for practicing your speed reading. You will get your reading speed as soon as you have finished your timed reading. You may then perform a comprehension test with a series of questions about the text you have just read.


Reading Comprehesion Practice Test


Speed Reading Test


Ready to get a 10? Good luck!

Listening Comprehension Practice Tests

One of the best ways to improve communication skills is to become familiar with the language by reading, building vocabulary, and discussing
what you study in daily conversations. Too often, English students spend time reading about topics that they Listeningnormally wouldn’t use in daily conversation. These sites presents short conversation starters or readings that you can study and then try to apply in everyday situations.

Just choose the level (basic, easy, medium, difficult or very difficult), you’ll really want to try them!



Plus! Improve your accent and rhythm in English . . . and learn daily expressions at the same time.




Possessivadjektive – Adjetivos Posesivos

El adjetivo posesivo acompaña al sustantivo, con quien concuerda en género, número y caso. Vemos en la siguiente tabla las distintas formas de este adjetivo:


Persona Masculino Femenino Neutro Plural
1ª sing. Mein Meine Mein Meine
  Mi (mío) Mi (mía) Mi (mío) Mis (míos-as)
2ª sing. Dein Deine Dein Deine
  Tu (tuyo) Tu (tuya) Tu (tuyo) Tus (tuyos-as)
3ª sing. Sein Seine Sein Seine
(de él) Su (suyo) Su (suya) Su (suyo) Sus (suyos-as)
3ª sing. Ihr Ihre Ihr Ihre
(de ella) Su (suyo) Su (suya) Su (suyo) Sus (suyos-as)
1ª plur. Unser Unsere Unser Unsere
  Nuestro Nuestra Nuestro Nuestros-as
2ª plur. Euer Eure Euer Eure
  Vuestro Vuestra Vuestro Vuestros-as
3ª plur. Ihr Ihre Ihr Ihre
(de usted) (de ellos) Su (suyo) Su (suya) Su (suyo) Sus (suyos-as)


Estos adjetivos posesivos se declinan siguiendo todos el mismo modelo, excepto el correspondiente a la 2ª persona del plural. A título de ejemplo vamos a declinar el correspondiente a la primera persona del singular:


Forma singular:
  Masculino Femenino Neutro
Nominativo Mein Meine Mein Mi (mío, mía)
Acusativo Meinen Meine Mein Mi (mío, mía)
Dativo Meinem Meiner Meinem A mi (al mío, mía)
Genitivo Meines Meiner Meines De mi (del mío, mía)
Forma plural: Idéntica para masculino, femenino y neutro
Nominativo Meine Mis (míos, mías)
Acusativo Meine Mis (míos, mías)
Dativo Meinen A mis (a los míos, mías)
Genitivo Meiner De mis ( de los míos, mías)


En cuanto al correspondiente a la 2º persona del plural se producen algunas diferencias, ya que en algunos casos desaparece una “e” de la raíz:


Forma singular:
  Masculino Femenino Neutro
Nominativo Euer Eure Euer Vuestro-a
Acusativo Euren Eure Euer Vuestro-a
Dativo Eurem Eurer Eurem A vuestro-a
Genitivo Eures Eurer Eures De vuestro-a
Forma plural: Idéntica para masculino, femenino y neutro
Nominativo Eure Vuestros-as
Acusativo Eure Vuestros-as
Dativo Euren A vuestros-as
Genitivo Eurer De vuestros-as


Estos mismos adjetivos pueden desempeñar la función de pronombres posesivos, en cuyo caso no acompañan a ningún sustantivo, sino que los sustituyen.


Veamos algunos ejemplos de estos adjetivos y pronombres posesivos:

Mein Wagen ist gross – Mi coche es grande

Dein Wagen ist klein – Tu coche es pequeño

Sie helfen ihrem Freund – Ellos ayudan a su amigo

Wir helfen unseren Freunden – Nosotros ayudamos a nuestros amigos