SALC

Here are some suggestions on how to use the SALC to practice and learn languages.

SALC - Here are some suggestions on how to use the SALC to practice and learn languages.

Mixed Conditional

MIXED CONDITIONAL

It is possible for the two parts of a conditional sentence to refer to different times, and the resulting sentence is a “mixed conditional” sentence. There are two types of mixed conditional sentence.

PRESENT RESULT OF A PAST CONDITION

FORM

In this type of mixed conditional sentence, the tense in the ‘if’ clause is the past perfect, and the tense in the main clause is the present conditional.

If clause (condition) Main clause (result)
If + past perfect present conditional
If this thing had happened that thing would happen.

As in all conditional sentences, the order of the clauses is not fixed. You may have to rearrange the pronouns and adjust punctuation when you change the order of the clauses, but the meaning is identical.

EXAMPLES
  • If I had worked harder at school, I would have a better job now.
  • I would have a better job now if I had worked harder at school.
  • If we had looked at the map we wouldn’t be lost.
  • We wouldn’t be lost if we had looked at the map.
  • If you had caught that plane you would be dead now.
  • You would be dead now if you had caught that plane.
FUNCTION

This type of mixed conditional refers to an unreal past condition and its probable result in the present. These sentences express a situation which is contrary to reality both in the past and in the present. In these mixed conditional sentences, the time is the past in the “if” clause and in the presentin the main clause.

EXAMPLES
  • If I had studied I would have my driving license. (but I didn’t study and now I don’t have my license)
  • I would be a millionaire now if I had taken that job. (but I didn’t take the job and I’m not a millionaire)
  • If you had spent all your money, you wouldn’t buy this jacket. (but you didn’t spend all your money and now you can buy this jacket)

In these mixed conditional sentences, you can also use modals in the main clause instead of would to express the degree of certainty, permission, or a recommendation about the outcome.

EXAMPLES
  • If you had crashed the car, you might be in trouble.
  • I could be a millionaire now if I had invested in ABC Plumbing.
  • If I had learned to ski, I might be on the slopes right now.

PAST RESULT OF PRESENT OR CONTINUING CONDITION

FORM

In this second type of mixed conditional sentence, the tense in the ‘if’ clause is the simple past, and the tense in the main clause is the perfect conditional.

If clause (condition) Main clause (result)
If + simple past perfect conditional
If this thing happened that thing would have happened.

As in all conditional sentences, the order of the clauses is not fixed. You may have to rearrange the pronouns and adjust punctuation when you change the order of the clauses, but the meaning is identical.

EXAMPLES
  • If I wasn’t afraid of spiders, I would have picked it up.
  • I would have picked it up if I wasn’t afraid of spiders.
  • If we didn’t trust him we would have sacked him months ago.
  • We would have sacked him months ago if we didn’t trust him.
  • If I wasn’t in the middle of another meeting, I would have been happy to help you.
  • I would have been happy to help you if I wasn’t in the middle of another meeting.
FUNCTION

These mixed conditional sentences refer to an unreal present situation and its probable (but unreal) past result. In these mixed conditional sentences, the time in the if clause is now or always and the time in the main clause is before now. For example, “If I wasn’t afraid of spiders” is contrary to present reality. I am afraid of spiders. “I would have picked it up” is contrary to past reality. I didn’t pick it up.

EXAMPLES
  • If she wasn’t afraid of flying she wouldn’t have travelled by boat.
  • I’d have been able to translate the letter if my Italian was better.
  • If I was a good cook, I’d have invited them to lunch.
  • If the elephant wasn’t in love with the mouse, she’d have trodden on him by now.

Now Practice

Mixed Conditionals

COMPARATIVES and SUPERLATIVES

COMPARATIVES

Comparatives are used to compare two things.

For one-syllable adjectives: adjective –er + than

He is taller than his cousin.

For two or more syllable adjectives: more + adjective + than (to show the opposite use less instead of more before the adjective).

This ring is more expensive than that one.

For adjectives ending in ‘y’: drop the ‘y’ and adjective –ier + than

She is funnier than him.

There are exceptions – good (better), bad (worse), far(further/farther), etc.

If the second person or thing being compared isn’t mentioned in the sentence, we drop than.

Which is more important, money or power? I think money is more important.

We can also use comparatives to compare one person or thing with all the rest of the people or things in their group.

John is more diligent than all of his classmates.

 

SUPERLATIVES

Superlatives are used to compare a person or thing with every other person or thing in the same group.

For 1 syllable adjectives: the + adjective –est

He is the tallest member of his family.

For 2 or more syllable adjectives: the + most + adjective (to show the opposite use least instead of most before the adjective)

This ring is the most expensive ring in the store.

For adjectives ending in y: drop the y and use the + adjective –iest

She is the funniest person here.

There are exceptions – good (best)bad (worst)far (furthest/farthest), etc.

 

Practice 1

Practice 2

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Is Speed Reading for You?

speed-readAre you an efficient reader? What kind of reader are you?

You will know in a few minutes after you have completed this free online speed reading test.

You will get your reading speed as soon as you have finished your timed reading. You may then perform a comprehension test with a series of questions about the text you have just read.

 

Speed Reading Test

 

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If you want to know more before doing the test, follow this link: http://www.instantseries.com/speed-reading/

Listening Comprehension Practice Tests

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One of the best ways to improve communication skills is to become familiar with the language by reading, building vocabulary, and discussing
what you study in daily conversations. Too often, English students spend time reading about topics that they Listeningnormally wouldn’t use in daily conversation. These sites presents short conversation starters or readings that you can study and then try to apply in everyday situations.

Just choose the level (basic, easy, medium, difficult or very difficult), you’ll really want to try them!

 

www.esl-lab.com

www.dailyesl.com

www.ezslang.com

www.englishvoices.org

 

 

Plus! Improve your accent and rhythm in English . . . and learn daily expressions at the same time.

www.trainyouraccent.com

 

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SAT Reading Comprehension

From MajorTests.com:

Reading Comprehension (also known as Critical Reading) questions test your ability to understand a passage and answer questions on the basis of what is stated and implied in the passage. You need to read the passage first so that you can identify the main idea of the passage and appreciate features such as the author’s tone and attitude as well as the organization of the passage. Scroll back to the relevant point in the text as you do each question.

Passages on the SAT vary in length from short paragraphs that take 3 minutes to read and answer two questions, to ones that take 15 minutes to read and answer 13 questions. One section will contain two related long passages. Mini tests 11 – 14 contain one paragraph reading comprehensions. Be sure to read the directions and the time allowed at the beginning of each of our mini tests.

There is no shortcut to improving your critical reading ability. Practice does help – but if you are making too many errors on our mini tests, consult your teacher or just choose some good books and get down to some serious reading.

 

Directions

The reading passage is accompanied by a set of questions based on the passage and any introductory material that is given. Answer the questions according to what is stated or implied in the passage.

In the case of a double comprehension:
The two passages are accompanied by questions based on the content of each and the relationship between them. Answer the questions on the basis of what is stated or implied in the reading extracts and any introductory material.

 


Practice SAT Reading Comprehension

☼►David Bowie◄☼

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David Bowie is a music legend. He was one of the most original, innovative and influential rock stars in music history. He was also an actor, fashion icon, record producer, artist and art critic. He was born in London on the 8th of January, 1947 and died at the age of 69 on the 10th of January, 2016. His real name was David Robert Jones but he changed it because there was another David Jones singing in the 1960s.
giphy (4)David Bowie first became famous following his 1969 hit “Space Oddity”. This song was released just ten days before the first Moon landing. In 1972, Bowie became a leader of the glam rock movement. He wowed and shocked people with his make-up, dresses and flamboyant costumes. His Ziggy Stardust persona was the first of many different characters Bowie would use every time he changed musical direction.


Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, Bowie continued to break new ground with his music. In 1975, he experimented with soul music and had a number one hit in the USA with the song ‘Fame’. He also helped to pioneer the electronic and new romantic movements in the mid-1970s. In the early-80s, he was one of the first artists to use videos to promote his songs.Bowie_Hairstyle_GIF.gif.CROP.original-original

Throughout the 1990s and 2000s, Bowie continued to experiment with musical styles, including industrial and jungle. His fans thought he had given up making music after a ten-year break starting in 2003. He surprised the world by suddenly announcing a new album, ‘The Next Day’ in 2013. He released his final album days before his death. Many believe the album was Bowie’s goodbye to his fans.

 

Space Oddity

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