SALC

Here are some suggestions on how to use the SALC to practice and learn languages.

SALC - Here are some suggestions on how to use the SALC to practice and learn languages.

Mixed Conditional

MIXED CONDITIONAL

It is possible for the two parts of a conditional sentence to refer to different times, and the resulting sentence is a “mixed conditional” sentence. There are two types of mixed conditional sentence.

PRESENT RESULT OF A PAST CONDITION

FORM

In this type of mixed conditional sentence, the tense in the ‘if’ clause is the past perfect, and the tense in the main clause is the present conditional.

If clause (condition) Main clause (result)
If + past perfect present conditional
If this thing had happened that thing would happen.

As in all conditional sentences, the order of the clauses is not fixed. You may have to rearrange the pronouns and adjust punctuation when you change the order of the clauses, but the meaning is identical.

EXAMPLES
  • If I had worked harder at school, I would have a better job now.
  • I would have a better job now if I had worked harder at school.
  • If we had looked at the map we wouldn’t be lost.
  • We wouldn’t be lost if we had looked at the map.
  • If you had caught that plane you would be dead now.
  • You would be dead now if you had caught that plane.
FUNCTION

This type of mixed conditional refers to an unreal past condition and its probable result in the present. These sentences express a situation which is contrary to reality both in the past and in the present. In these mixed conditional sentences, the time is the past in the “if” clause and in the presentin the main clause.

EXAMPLES
  • If I had studied I would have my driving license. (but I didn’t study and now I don’t have my license)
  • I would be a millionaire now if I had taken that job. (but I didn’t take the job and I’m not a millionaire)
  • If you had spent all your money, you wouldn’t buy this jacket. (but you didn’t spend all your money and now you can buy this jacket)

In these mixed conditional sentences, you can also use modals in the main clause instead of would to express the degree of certainty, permission, or a recommendation about the outcome.

EXAMPLES
  • If you had crashed the car, you might be in trouble.
  • I could be a millionaire now if I had invested in ABC Plumbing.
  • If I had learned to ski, I might be on the slopes right now.

PAST RESULT OF PRESENT OR CONTINUING CONDITION

FORM

In this second type of mixed conditional sentence, the tense in the ‘if’ clause is the simple past, and the tense in the main clause is the perfect conditional.

If clause (condition) Main clause (result)
If + simple past perfect conditional
If this thing happened that thing would have happened.

As in all conditional sentences, the order of the clauses is not fixed. You may have to rearrange the pronouns and adjust punctuation when you change the order of the clauses, but the meaning is identical.

EXAMPLES
  • If I wasn’t afraid of spiders, I would have picked it up.
  • I would have picked it up if I wasn’t afraid of spiders.
  • If we didn’t trust him we would have sacked him months ago.
  • We would have sacked him months ago if we didn’t trust him.
  • If I wasn’t in the middle of another meeting, I would have been happy to help you.
  • I would have been happy to help you if I wasn’t in the middle of another meeting.
FUNCTION

These mixed conditional sentences refer to an unreal present situation and its probable (but unreal) past result. In these mixed conditional sentences, the time in the if clause is now or always and the time in the main clause is before now. For example, “If I wasn’t afraid of spiders” is contrary to present reality. I am afraid of spiders. “I would have picked it up” is contrary to past reality. I didn’t pick it up.

EXAMPLES
  • If she wasn’t afraid of flying she wouldn’t have travelled by boat.
  • I’d have been able to translate the letter if my Italian was better.
  • If I was a good cook, I’d have invited them to lunch.
  • If the elephant wasn’t in love with the mouse, she’d have trodden on him by now.

Now Practice

Mixed Conditionals

20 Adjectives in English

20 common adjectives in English with definition and examples!

 

1. Small: pequeño, pequeña, pequeños, pequeñas
sfbf-160x140I like small computers / Me gustan las computadoras pequeñas

 

2. Big: grande, grandes
I think your car is too big / Pienso que tu auto es demasiado grande

 

3. Intelligent: inteligente, inteligentes
People who study and work at the same time are quite intelligent / La gente que estudia y trabaja al mismo tiempo es bastante inteligente

 

4. Heavy: pesado, pesada, pesadas, pesadostoonvectors-71305-140
Please, take those heavy boxes to my office / Por favor, lleva esas cajas pesadas a mi oficina

 

5. Light: ligero, ligera, ligeros, ligeras
Sending light parcels is free / Enviar paquetes ligeros es gratis

 

6. Mean: malo, mala malos, malas
Don’t be mean to your brother / No seas malo con tu hermano

 

7. Lovely / Pretty: bonito, bonita, bonitos, bonitas
The pictures you took yesterday are lovely / Las fotografías que tomaste ayer son bonitas

She looks pretty / Ella luce bonita

 

8. Free: gratis
People love getting free stuff / A la gente le encanta obtener cosas gratis

 

9. Cheap: barato, barata, baratos, baratas
When I go abroad, I usually stay at cheap hotels / Cuando voy al extranjero, usualmente me hospedo en hoteles baratos

price-tag-clip-art-at-clker-com-vector-clip-art-online-royalty-free-ccn8ti-clipart


10. Expensive: caro, cara, caros, caras

The sofa she bought was expensive / El sofá que ella compró fue caro

 

11. Safe: seguro, segura, seguros, seguras
Our new model is fast, reliable and safe / Nuestro nuevo modelo es rápido, fiable y seguro

 

12. Wet: mojado, mojada, mojados, mojadas
The towel is still wet please take it outside / La toalla está aún mojada por favor llévala afuera.

 

13. Dry: seco, seca, secos, secas
Remember you should put all the dry dishes in the cabinet / Recuerda que debes poner todos los platos secos en el gabinete

 

14. Strong: fuerte, fuertes
Most of the times man are not as strong as women / La mayoría de las veces los hombres no son tan fuertes como las mujeres

 

15. Ugly: feo, fea, feos, feas
I don’t like where I live now because it is small and ugly / No me gusta donde vivo ahora porque es pequeño y feo

 

16. Sad: triste, tristes
Most people do not like sad movies but I do / A la mayoría de la gente no les gustan las películas tristes pero a mi sí

 

 

happy-faces-on-pinterest-smileys-smiley-faces-and-the-bahamas-sf0vac-clipart17. Happy: feliz, felices                                                          He is very happy with his new job / Èl esta muy feliz con su nuevo trabajo

 

18. Clean: limpio, limpia, limpios, limpias
The plumber checked all the pipes; they are clean. El plomero revisó todas las tuberías; están limpias

 

19. Dirty: sucio, sucia, sucios, sucias
Ryan, your bedroom is dirty; clean it or you won’t go to the concert / Ryan, tu dormitorio está sucio; límpialo o no irás al concierto

 

dhgfdg20. Lucky: afortunado, afortunada, afortunados, afortunadas
My cousin Annie won the lottery; she is so lucky / Mi prima Annie ganó la lotería; ella es muy afortunada

There is / There are

We use there is and there are to say that something exists.

 

Positive Sentences

We use there is for singular and there are for plural.

  • There is one table in the classroom.
  • There are three chairs in the classroom.
  • There is a spider in the bath.
  • There are many people at the bus stop.

We also use There is with uncountable nouns:

  • There is milk in the fridge.
  • There is some sugar on the table.
  • There is ice cream on your shirt.

 

seretr

Contractions

The contraction of there is is there’s.

  • There’s a good song on the radio.
  • There’s only one chocolate left in the box.

You cannot contract there are.

  • There are nine cats on the roof.
  • There are only five weeks until my birthday.

 

Negative Form

The negative is formed by putting not after is or are:

  • There is not a horse in the field.
  • There are not eight children in the school.
  • There is not a tree in the garden.
  • There are not two elephants in the zoo.

We almost always use contractions when speaking.

The Negative contractions are:

  • There’s not = There isn’t
  • There are not = There aren’t

 

There aren’t with ANY

When we want to indicate that a zero quantity of something exists we use there aren’t any.

  • There aren’t any people at the party.
  • There aren’t any trees in my street.

We also use this structure with uncountable nouns:

  • There isn’t any water in the swimming pool.
  • There isn’t any sugar in my coffee.

 

Questions

To form a question we place is / are in front of there.

Again we use any with plural questions or those which use uncountable nouns.

We also use there is / are in short answers.

  • Is there a dog in the supermarket? – No, there isn’t.
  • Are there any dogs in the park? – Yes, there are.
  • Is there a security guard in the shop? – Yes, there is.
  • Are there any polar bears in Antarctica? – No, there aren’t.
  • Is there any ice-cream in the freezer? – Yes, there is.

 

Source: grammar.cl

 

Some exercises to practice:

http://www.agendaweb.org/grammar/there-is-there-are/index.html

http://www.agendaweb.org/exercises/grammar/there-is-there-are.htm

http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/various/there_is_there_are.htm

http://www.carmenlu.com/first/grammar/thereis1_2.htm

http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/various/there_is_there_are5.htm

 

there-is-a-there-are-5-638

Days of the week ☺

thecure

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The Cure is an English rock band formed in Crawley, West Sussex, in 1976. The band has experienced several line-up changes, with vocalist, guitarist and principal songwriter Robert Smith being the only constant member.

The Cure first began releasing music in the late 1970s with their debut album Three Imaginary Boys; this, along with several early singles, placed the band as part a2964b10438393.5633d051d0053of the post-punk and new wave movements that had sprung up in the wake of the punk rock revolution in the United Kingdom.
During the early 1980s, the band’s increasingly dark and tormented music was a staple of the emerging gothic rock genre.
Today I have this particular song “Friday I’m in love” for you to practice the days of the week ☺ Did you know? On this witty take on Rock’s traditional love of the weekend, Robert Smith expresses his desire for his lover on their weekly Friday night out but dismisses her over the rest of the week. He said of the song in Spin magazine: “‘Friday I’m in Love’ is a dumb pop song, but it’s quite excellent actually, because it’s so absurd. It’s so out of character – very optimistic and really out there in happy land. It’s nice to get that counterbalance. (http://www.songfacts.com/detail.php?id=14988)

The Cure - Friday I´m in Love.

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Occupations – Jobs

A Historic Topic – A vs. An

Writers sometimes confuse the use of the articles a and an. We were all taught that a precedes a word starting with a consonant and that an precedes a word starting with a vowel (a, e, i, o, u, and sometimes y).

Here’s the secret to making the rule work: The rule applies to the sound of the letter beginning the word, not just the letter itself. The way we say the word will determine whether or not we use a oran. If the word begins with a vowel sound, you must use an. If it begins with a consonant sound, you must use a.

For example, the word hour begins with the consonant h. But the h is silent, so the word has a vowel sound. Hence:

an hour

The rule works the other way as well. Take the word university. It begins with the vowel u. But the uis pronounced as if it begins with the consonant y. Hence:

a university

But consider the word umbrella, also starting with u. It starts with the vowel sound uh. Hence:

an umbrella

Another vowel with a consonant sound is o. When spoken, the letter can sound as if it begins with the consonant w. Thus, we use the a:

a one-room apartment
a once-famous actor

Articles with Words Beginning with ‘h,’ a or an

The consonant giving us the most trouble is probably h. When the h begins a word and the first syllable is strongly pronounced, you should use a.

a history of Europe (accent falls on his)
a hero (accent falls on he)

But when the beginning h is weakly pronounced (historic, habitual), you may use an, especially in British English.

an historic occasion (hisTORic)
an habitual offender (haBITual)

But these usages are becoming increasingly old-fashioned, so you may also use a.

a historic occasion
a habitual offender

Articles with Acronyms, a or an

Finally, the rule applies to acronyms as well. If you pronounce a letter as a letter and it begins with a vowel sound, you should precede it with an. The consonants with vowel sounds include f, h, l, m, n, r, s, and x.

He flew in an SST.
He fired an M‑1.
He attended an FDA hearing.

By the same token, if a vowel letter, with a consonant sound, is pronounced as a letter, you should use a.

He made a U‑turn.

Got it? So what is your grade?

An A?
A B?
Surely not an F.

 

Occupations Test

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See, Look, Watch, Hear and Listen

Hi there! Think some verbs are very similar and so confusing? Stop suffering! Here the difference between See, Look and Watch and between Hear and Listen. When you finish reviewing try the quizzes below to check your understanding.

Lets’s start! :)

 

See vs. Look vs. Watch

See is a verb of perception, it is a sense. It is automatic and doesn’t require a decision to use this sense. It is associated with things that we can’t avoid.

Look and Watch are action verbs that require a decision for you to use them. They never happen automatically.


Look
is used to suggest a direction for your eyes. Usually we use this verb when the things we look at doesn’t move. b-olho

Look – camera, prices, mirror, sky.

  • Look at this picture.
  • I like to look at the stars at night.

Watch is when we talk about concentrating on something, like a movie or sports. Using watch suggests there is a movement involved, so you can use that for TV or movies.

Watch – a movie, a TV program, a football match.

  • I like to sit on the verandah and watch people walk by.
  • I watch Friends everyday on TV.

 

Hear vs. Listen

Hear is another of our senses and so accordingly it is automatic. It does not require a conscious decision.

Hear – a noise, a voice, an explosion.

  • You could hear the explosion from the next suburb.
  • Do you hear voices in the night?

Listen is an action verb and you need to make a decision to do it. You can choose if you listen to something or not. For example you can hear somebody talking but you need to listen to them to understand what they are saying.

Listen – music, a speech.

  • I can’t listen to anything else you want to say. I’m so tired.
  • I didn’t want to listen to the President’s speech but I didn’t have a choice.

 

Examples of each verb

  • I can see the mountains in the distance.dog-listening-gif
  • Can you see the whiteboard from your seat?
  • Look at the map to find where we are.
  • Don’t look at him for the answer – I asked you!
  • I love to watch Grey’s Anatomy on Monday night.
  • My husband watches the replays of the football on the weekend.
  • I can’t hear you. Could you speak louder please?
  • Did you hear the thunder last night?
  • You should always listen to your mother’s advice.
  • Can we listen to some different music? I’m sick of Luis Miguel!

It is also important to remember that the verb LISTEN is always followed by TO. Review the examples above and you will see this principle.

 

Animated-Pointing-Down

Exercises


look, see or watch?

to look, to see, to watch

Look, See & Watch

hear or listen?

Hear & Listen

See Look Watch Hear Listen

 

 

Source: Woodward English

Question Words

Sometimes we want more than yes or no for an answer. When asking for information, we usually place a question-word at the beginning of the sentence. The question-word indicates the information that we want, for example: where(place), when (time), why (reason), who (person).

This chart provides question words, the use and example sentences. Study the question words, understand the uses and then look at the examples. Try to think of a few examples of your own. At the end, take the practice quizzes about question words.

 

 

WHO

 

Used when referring to people. (= I want to know the person)
  • Who is the best football player in the world?
  • Who are your best friends?

 

WHERE

 

Used when referring to a place or location. (= I want to know the place)
  • Where is the library?
  • Where do you live?

 

WHEN

 

Used to refer to a time or an occasion. (= I want to know the time)
  • When do the shops open?
  • When is his birthday?

 

WHY

Used to obtain an explanation or a reason. (= I want to know the reason)
  • Why do we need a nanny?
  • Why are they always late?

 

WHAT

 

Used to refer to specific information. (= I want to know the thing)
  • What is your name?
  • What is her favourite colour?

 

WHICH

 

Used when a choice needs to be made. (= I want to know the thing between alternatives)
  • Which day do you prefer for a meeting – today or tomorrow?
  • Which is better – this one or that one?

 

HOW

 

 

Used to describe the manner that something is done. (= I want to know the way)

How much – refers to a quantity or a price (uncountable nouns)

How many – refers to a quantity (countable nouns)

  • How can I learn English quickly?
  • How much money will I need?
  • How many brothers and sister do you have?

 

*When the question-word is who, it acts as the subject.
**In Present Simple and Past Simple tenses, there is no auxilary verb with who.

 

 

34062135-Vector-illustration-of-sticky-papers-with-question-words-on-it-saying-what-where-when-who-how-and-wh-Stock-Vector

 

Question Words 1

Question Words 2

Question Words 3

Question Words 4

Question Words 5

 

 

 

 

*Source: grammar.cl

Listening

Do you need to practice your Listening comprehension?

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I’ve been searching some links so we can help you improve your listening comprehension skills,  Here is a link that, in particular it helped me before when I was studying English as it has a great amount of day-life scenarios and topics that include as well different levels for you to practice your listening.

Most of these links include comprehension exercises for you , such as multiple choice questions, gap fill typing and also worksheets for you! Isn’t it amazing?

YOU SHOULD TRY IT☺

you won’t believe the amount of topics there!

Let us know what you think about it.

Click in the picture below so you can start right on!

Listening