SALC

Here are some suggestions on how to use the SALC to practice and learn languages.

SALC - Here are some suggestions on how to use the SALC to practice and learn languages.

Mixed Conditional

MIXED CONDITIONAL

It is possible for the two parts of a conditional sentence to refer to different times, and the resulting sentence is a “mixed conditional” sentence. There are two types of mixed conditional sentence.

PRESENT RESULT OF A PAST CONDITION

FORM

In this type of mixed conditional sentence, the tense in the ‘if’ clause is the past perfect, and the tense in the main clause is the present conditional.

If clause (condition) Main clause (result)
If + past perfect present conditional
If this thing had happened that thing would happen.

As in all conditional sentences, the order of the clauses is not fixed. You may have to rearrange the pronouns and adjust punctuation when you change the order of the clauses, but the meaning is identical.

EXAMPLES
  • If I had worked harder at school, I would have a better job now.
  • I would have a better job now if I had worked harder at school.
  • If we had looked at the map we wouldn’t be lost.
  • We wouldn’t be lost if we had looked at the map.
  • If you had caught that plane you would be dead now.
  • You would be dead now if you had caught that plane.
FUNCTION

This type of mixed conditional refers to an unreal past condition and its probable result in the present. These sentences express a situation which is contrary to reality both in the past and in the present. In these mixed conditional sentences, the time is the past in the “if” clause and in the presentin the main clause.

EXAMPLES
  • If I had studied I would have my driving license. (but I didn’t study and now I don’t have my license)
  • I would be a millionaire now if I had taken that job. (but I didn’t take the job and I’m not a millionaire)
  • If you had spent all your money, you wouldn’t buy this jacket. (but you didn’t spend all your money and now you can buy this jacket)

In these mixed conditional sentences, you can also use modals in the main clause instead of would to express the degree of certainty, permission, or a recommendation about the outcome.

EXAMPLES
  • If you had crashed the car, you might be in trouble.
  • I could be a millionaire now if I had invested in ABC Plumbing.
  • If I had learned to ski, I might be on the slopes right now.

PAST RESULT OF PRESENT OR CONTINUING CONDITION

FORM

In this second type of mixed conditional sentence, the tense in the ‘if’ clause is the simple past, and the tense in the main clause is the perfect conditional.

If clause (condition) Main clause (result)
If + simple past perfect conditional
If this thing happened that thing would have happened.

As in all conditional sentences, the order of the clauses is not fixed. You may have to rearrange the pronouns and adjust punctuation when you change the order of the clauses, but the meaning is identical.

EXAMPLES
  • If I wasn’t afraid of spiders, I would have picked it up.
  • I would have picked it up if I wasn’t afraid of spiders.
  • If we didn’t trust him we would have sacked him months ago.
  • We would have sacked him months ago if we didn’t trust him.
  • If I wasn’t in the middle of another meeting, I would have been happy to help you.
  • I would have been happy to help you if I wasn’t in the middle of another meeting.
FUNCTION

These mixed conditional sentences refer to an unreal present situation and its probable (but unreal) past result. In these mixed conditional sentences, the time in the if clause is now or always and the time in the main clause is before now. For example, “If I wasn’t afraid of spiders” is contrary to present reality. I am afraid of spiders. “I would have picked it up” is contrary to past reality. I didn’t pick it up.

EXAMPLES
  • If she wasn’t afraid of flying she wouldn’t have travelled by boat.
  • I’d have been able to translate the letter if my Italian was better.
  • If I was a good cook, I’d have invited them to lunch.
  • If the elephant wasn’t in love with the mouse, she’d have trodden on him by now.

Now Practice

Mixed Conditionals

Ecrire une lettre de réclamation

La marchandise livrée avec retard ou en mauvais état, la livraison incomplète…  De nombreuses situations peuvent donner lieu à réclamation de la part du client. Les lettres de réclamation ne sont jamais agréables à recevoir et elles sont parmi les plus difficiles à rédiger.

Pour bien réussir votre lettre de réclamation n’oubliez pas que ce n’est pas un moyen d’expression pour vous défouler sur une personne, un service ou une société qui vous pose un problème. Gardez bien en tête qu’une lettre écrite, de manière diplomatique, permet souvent de trouver des compromis acceptables pour les deux parties. Alors,

  • Soyez précis (dates, objet clair de la réclamation…). Cela permettra à votre interlocuteur de mieux situer l’origine du contentieux
  • Soyez bref : inutile d’écrire plusieurs pages d’explication. Une description courte et précise aura plus de chance d’être lue
  • Écrivez dans un langage compréhensible
  • Évitez les fautes
  • Respectez votre interlocuteur en restant poli et en le vouvoyant
  • Respectez les règles de présentation des lettres officielles

Comment présenter une lettre de réclamation ?

Sur papier blanc, format A4 (21 X 29,7 cm)

A Votre nom et votre adresse: Cette information est placée en haut et à gauche de la  lettre. Éventuellement, on peut indiquer le N° de  téléphone et de fax.

B  Lieu d’expédition et date: Cette information est placée en haut et à droite de la lettre.  Il faut mettre la date exacte. Il faut écrire le nom du mois en toutes lettres, précédé du nom du lieu  de l’expédition : Lyon, le 21 avril 2013.

C  Nom et l’adresse du destinataire: Cette information se place sous la date en prenant soin d’aligner l’ensemble sur la gauche.

D  Objet de la lettre: Dans bien des cas, il est utile d’indiquer par quelques  mots le sujet abordé dans la lettre, exemple: réclamation commande 956783 / livraison incomplète.

E  Formule d’appel (l’en-tête): Si les personnes à qui l’on s’adresse n’ont  pas de titre particulier: Madame, Monsieur. Sinon, mentionner le titre de la personne: Monsieur le Directeur, Monsieur le Proviseur, etc.

F  Corps de la lettre: Il est important de présenter ses idées dans un certain ordre. Pour cela, suivez des étapes suivantes:

–  racontez les événements à l’origine de la réclamation (au passé);

–  expliquez le problème en détail (au présent);

–  proposez une solution et/ou formulez une demande (au futur).

G  Formule finale: Dans la formule de politesse finale, il faut inclure l’attente de réponse, les remerciements et les salutations. Par exemple: Dans l’attente de votre réponse je vous prie d’accepter /  je vous prie d’agréer, Monsieur… l’assurance de mes sentiments respectueux / distingués.

H  Signature

I  Pièces jointes (éventuellement): Cette indication placée au bas de la page rappelle les documents que vous joignez à votre lettre. Le nom de ces documents est précédé des lettres P. J.

 

Quelques conseils encore :

  • Lorsque vous joignez des documents ou justificatifs, utilisez exclusivement des copies. Conservez toujours les originaux.
  • Conservez systématiquement un double des courriers que vous envoyez. Ainsi, en cas de réponse, vous saurez encore précisément ce qui avait été demandé.
  • L’envoi de votre courrier doit se faire par lettre recommandée avec Accusé de Réception. Ce sera la preuve que votre interlocuteur a bien reçu votre réclamation. N’envoyez pas d’e-mail ! C’est moins direct, moins contraignant, et la portée juridique n’en est pas encore clairement définie.

 

Maintenant, fais les exercices en bas de page

Days of the week ☺

thecure

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The Cure is an English rock band formed in Crawley, West Sussex, in 1976. The band has experienced several line-up changes, with vocalist, guitarist and principal songwriter Robert Smith being the only constant member.

The Cure first began releasing music in the late 1970s with their debut album Three Imaginary Boys; this, along with several early singles, placed the band as part a2964b10438393.5633d051d0053of the post-punk and new wave movements that had sprung up in the wake of the punk rock revolution in the United Kingdom.
During the early 1980s, the band’s increasingly dark and tormented music was a staple of the emerging gothic rock genre.
Today I have this particular song “Friday I’m in love” for you to practice the days of the week ☺ Did you know? On this witty take on Rock’s traditional love of the weekend, Robert Smith expresses his desire for his lover on their weekly Friday night out but dismisses her over the rest of the week. He said of the song in Spin magazine: “‘Friday I’m in Love’ is a dumb pop song, but it’s quite excellent actually, because it’s so absurd. It’s so out of character – very optimistic and really out there in happy land. It’s nice to get that counterbalance. (http://www.songfacts.com/detail.php?id=14988)

The Cure - Friday I´m in Love.

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So vs. Such (SALC resources)

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To review the uses of “so” and “such”,  you can come to the SALC and use the following resources:

  • Oxford Practice Grammar Basic (i G Lb 02.44), unit 70, pages 152-153. Check your answers on page 264.
  • New American Inside Out Pre-Intermediate Workbook (i P Ct 013.2), unit 2, page 10, exercises 4 and 5.