SALC

Here are some suggestions on how to use the SALC to practice and learn languages.

SALC - Here are some suggestions on how to use the SALC to practice and learn languages.

Mixed Conditional

MIXED CONDITIONAL

It is possible for the two parts of a conditional sentence to refer to different times, and the resulting sentence is a “mixed conditional” sentence. There are two types of mixed conditional sentence.

PRESENT RESULT OF A PAST CONDITION

FORM

In this type of mixed conditional sentence, the tense in the ‘if’ clause is the past perfect, and the tense in the main clause is the present conditional.

If clause (condition) Main clause (result)
If + past perfect present conditional
If this thing had happened that thing would happen.

As in all conditional sentences, the order of the clauses is not fixed. You may have to rearrange the pronouns and adjust punctuation when you change the order of the clauses, but the meaning is identical.

EXAMPLES
  • If I had worked harder at school, I would have a better job now.
  • I would have a better job now if I had worked harder at school.
  • If we had looked at the map we wouldn’t be lost.
  • We wouldn’t be lost if we had looked at the map.
  • If you had caught that plane you would be dead now.
  • You would be dead now if you had caught that plane.
FUNCTION

This type of mixed conditional refers to an unreal past condition and its probable result in the present. These sentences express a situation which is contrary to reality both in the past and in the present. In these mixed conditional sentences, the time is the past in the “if” clause and in the presentin the main clause.

EXAMPLES
  • If I had studied I would have my driving license. (but I didn’t study and now I don’t have my license)
  • I would be a millionaire now if I had taken that job. (but I didn’t take the job and I’m not a millionaire)
  • If you had spent all your money, you wouldn’t buy this jacket. (but you didn’t spend all your money and now you can buy this jacket)

In these mixed conditional sentences, you can also use modals in the main clause instead of would to express the degree of certainty, permission, or a recommendation about the outcome.

EXAMPLES
  • If you had crashed the car, you might be in trouble.
  • I could be a millionaire now if I had invested in ABC Plumbing.
  • If I had learned to ski, I might be on the slopes right now.

PAST RESULT OF PRESENT OR CONTINUING CONDITION

FORM

In this second type of mixed conditional sentence, the tense in the ‘if’ clause is the simple past, and the tense in the main clause is the perfect conditional.

If clause (condition) Main clause (result)
If + simple past perfect conditional
If this thing happened that thing would have happened.

As in all conditional sentences, the order of the clauses is not fixed. You may have to rearrange the pronouns and adjust punctuation when you change the order of the clauses, but the meaning is identical.

EXAMPLES
  • If I wasn’t afraid of spiders, I would have picked it up.
  • I would have picked it up if I wasn’t afraid of spiders.
  • If we didn’t trust him we would have sacked him months ago.
  • We would have sacked him months ago if we didn’t trust him.
  • If I wasn’t in the middle of another meeting, I would have been happy to help you.
  • I would have been happy to help you if I wasn’t in the middle of another meeting.
FUNCTION

These mixed conditional sentences refer to an unreal present situation and its probable (but unreal) past result. In these mixed conditional sentences, the time in the if clause is now or always and the time in the main clause is before now. For example, “If I wasn’t afraid of spiders” is contrary to present reality. I am afraid of spiders. “I would have picked it up” is contrary to past reality. I didn’t pick it up.

EXAMPLES
  • If she wasn’t afraid of flying she wouldn’t have travelled by boat.
  • I’d have been able to translate the letter if my Italian was better.
  • If I was a good cook, I’d have invited them to lunch.
  • If the elephant wasn’t in love with the mouse, she’d have trodden on him by now.

Now Practice

Mixed Conditionals

Love, Like, Dislike and Hate

These verbs are used to express preferences ; things or activities that we like to do (I like hamburgers / Me gustan las hamburguesas)  and things or activities that we do not like to do (I dislike hamburgers / No me gustan las hamburguesas).

These verbs are regularly followed by two types of words: nouns and verbs.

 

1. Nouns

–I love cars. (Me encantan los carros)
-She likes movies.  (A ella le gustan las películas)
-We don’t like sad music. (No nos gusta la música triste)
-We dislike sad music. (No nos gusta la música triste)
-He hates spinach. (Odia las espinacas)

 

2. Verbs

When these words (love, like, dislike, hate) are followed by verbs, there are two options. These two options have identical meaning, you can use one or the other without variation in the sense of the phrase.

 

a) Verbo + ing
–She loves listening to music. (Me encanta escuchar música)
-I like playing soccer. (Me gustan jugar fútbol)
-He doesn’t like eating vegetables. (A él no le gusta comer verduras/vegetales)
-He dislikes eating bread. (A él no le gusta comer pan)
-They hate dancing. (Odian bailar)

 

b) Like + infinitivo
–She loves to listen to music. (Me encanta escuchar música)
-I like to play soccer. (Me gustan jugar futbol)
-He doesn’t like to eat vegetables. (A él no le gusta comer verduras/vegetales)
-He dislikes to eat bread. (A él no le gusta comer pan)
-They hate to dance. (Odian bailar)

 

like-dislike

 

Exercise 1    

Exercise 2

 

Phrasal Verbs About Clothes

Learn the most common phrasal verbs native speakers use to talk about clothing.

 

 

 

 

Clothing Phrasal Verbs Quiz

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Source: engvid.com

Verb Patterns

What are verb patterns?

In English we have many rules when it comes to using two verbs together in the same phrase. Verb patterns are the way you are going to use the second verb when it is dependent on the first verb. For example:

 

“I like drinking green tea after dinner or I like to drink green tea after dinner”

 

In this example you’ll see that in one of them I am using the “ing form” and in the other I’m using the “to infinitive.” In this example both forms are correct and both forms mean the exact same thing.

 

What’s so difficult about that???

Sure, it seems quite easy so far, but the verb “like” is an example of a verb that can be used with either form and the meaning doesn’t change. If we had to change the first verb from “like” and use the verb “stop,” this same rule, or pattern,  would not be the same and the meaning would change. For example:

 

“I stopped drinking water when exercising or I stopped to drink water when exercising”

 

In this example, both phrases are correct but they have different meanings. In the first, we have stopped the activity of “drinking water,” and in the second, we have stopped what we werw doing (exercising) to drink water.

So, now you can see that depending on the first verb that we use, we have to know what form we will use with the verb that follows.

 

Now let’s take a look at all the possibilities:

Verb Patterns Explanation

Verb Patterns List

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Keep practicing:

Exercise 1

Exercise 2

Exercise 3

Exercise 4

Exercise 5

Exercise 6

 

 

Modal Verbs

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The modal verbs include can, must, may, might, will, would, should. They are used with other verbs to express ability, obligation, possibility, and so on. Below there is a list showing the most useful modals and their most common meanings:

 

Modal Meaning Example
can to express ability I can speak a little Russian.
can to request permission Can I open the window?
may to express possibility I may be home late.
may to request permission May I sit down, please?
must to express obligation I must go now.
must to express strong belief She must be over 90 years old.
should to give advice You should stop smoking.
would to request or offer Would you like a cup of tea?
would in if-sentences If I were you, I would say sorry.

 

Rules to remember:

  • Most modal verbs cannot be used in past/future tenses.
  • When used in third person present tense modals do not have ‘-s’ ending.
  • Use not to make modals negative

 

Visit the following pages to practice and learn more about Modal Verbs:

Modal and Modal Phrases

Modal Verb Tutorial  (It includes exercises with explanations of each Modal Verb)